The stimulated brain : cognitive enhancement using non-invasive brain stimulation

Free download. Book file PDF easily for everyone and every device. You can download and read online The stimulated brain : cognitive enhancement using non-invasive brain stimulation file PDF Book only if you are registered here. And also you can download or read online all Book PDF file that related with The stimulated brain : cognitive enhancement using non-invasive brain stimulation book. Happy reading The stimulated brain : cognitive enhancement using non-invasive brain stimulation Bookeveryone. Download file Free Book PDF The stimulated brain : cognitive enhancement using non-invasive brain stimulation at Complete PDF Library. This Book have some digital formats such us :paperbook, ebook, kindle, epub, fb2 and another formats. Here is The CompletePDF Book Library. It's free to register here to get Book file PDF The stimulated brain : cognitive enhancement using non-invasive brain stimulation Pocket Guide.

If you click 'Continue' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings. Skip to main content. We proceed to discuss several factors that may contribute to the diversity in observed results.

We also offer recommendations for future studies that may help resolve these inconsistencies and shed more definitive light on the ability to use tES to enhance attention. As effects of tES on other domains also appear less robust than initially thought e. Electrode montage and stimulation intensity, duration, timing, and polarity alone offer a daunting number of degrees of freedom, and all of these parameters can greatly affect the outcome of stimulation. For instance, varying stimulation duration Monte-Silva et al.

Even the order of sham and real tES sessions could potentially affect the outcome: tES may interact with practice-related improvements in task performance, for example, such that tES effects are less pronounced in later sessions. This remains a factor even if session order is counterbalanced between subjects. Mostly, this review highlights a dire need for studies that more systematically explore the parameter space and for a mechanistic understanding of the neurophysiological effects of tES.

To determine promising parameter combinations, direct replications are essential. Preregistration may also facilitate progress in the field, as a recent meta-analysis of tDCS and working memory found some evidence for selective reporting of positive results Mancuso et al. Indeed, several studies underlined that individual differences may shape the outcome of stimulation. Many factors could play a role here, ranging from differences in head and brain anatomy to gender and genetics see Li et al.

The ultimate solution may be to tailor stimulation dosage and placement of electrodes to individual brains, but this requires sophisticated computational modeling efforts that are only just getting under way Berker et al. Understanding the factors that drive tES responsiveness is absolutely crucial to the aim of cognitive enhancement.

The Neuroethics of transcranial electrical stimulation

One cannot meaningfully speak of enhancement when a substantial portion of individuals shows no response or even a detriment. Potential costs to cognitive enhancement are often overlooked, but are a real possibility: enhancement of one cognitive function could be paired with a decline in another function Brem et al.

  1. Elastomere Friction: Theory, Experiment and Simulation (Lecture Notes in Applied and Computational Mechanics, Volume 51).
  2. Description;
  3. STIPED - Brain stimulation.
  4. Episiotomy: Procedure and Repair Techniques.
  5. Convergence Guidebook for Corporate Financial Reporting.

In the diseased brain, this principle may be exploited to return network function to the normal state. For instance, in hemispatial neglect, tDCS studies may restore the balance between the overactive, non-lesioned hemisphere and the overinhibited, lesioned hemisphere. However, in the healthy brain, boosting one network function with tES may incur a cost to another network function. For example, while cathodal parietal tDCS enhanced attention to ipsilateral stimuli, it worsened performance for contralateral and bilateral stimuli Filmer et al.

Similarly, an improved ability to focus attention in a top-down manner e. To evaluate such costs, including control tasks that probe other cognitive abilities is essential Parkin et al. This is particularly important for multiple session tES studies, where both enhancements and costs may be larger and potentially longer lasting. Future research in this direction is imperative, as virtually nothing is known about the long-term effects of repeated tES on attention processes in the healthy brain, nor about its potential adverse effects. Another important avenue for future research is to combine tES with neuroimaging techniques Bergmann et al.

Moreover, neuroimaging may greatly inform the choice of stimulation parameters. Clark et al. Is transcranial electrical stimulation an effective tool to enhance attention? At present, it is too early to say. Although the initial findings are encouraging, they require replication and further study. However, the interest from society at large in tES is considerable and has grossly outpaced the state of the field.

Informal surveys suggest that enhancement is the most common incentive for the growing use of tES at home, and that attention tops the list of enhancement purposes Jwa A recent open letter signed by many leading tES experts commands utmost caution and highlights a long list of unknowns that preclude practical applications of tES for enhancement Wurzman et al. We can only underscore that statement on the basis of this review and hope that our overview of current studies and recommendations for future research will help to determine the efficacy of tES for enhancing attention.

We thank Marlies Vissers and three anonymous reviewers for providing useful feedback on the manuscript. Skip to main content Skip to sections. Advertisement Hide. Download PDF. Authors Authors and affiliations L. Reteig L.

Talsma M. Open Access. First Online: 10 March Introduction Attention—the ability to prioritize processing of goal-relevant information—underpins many of our daily behaviors. We aim to provide a comprehensive overview of studies conducted to date that used tES to modulate attention.

STIPED - Brain stimulation

After a systematic search and screening of the results, we included 52 studies. Each of these tasks taps into distinct attentional processes that are relevant in different real-life situations. Our selection also included six studies that did not fit into one of these four categories Table 5. Table 1 Studies using visual search tasks. All studies were sham controlled A anodal, C cathodal, ref location of tDCS electrode that was not of interest, FEF frontal eye field, PPC posterior parietal cortex, Online task performed during stimulation, Offline task performed after stimulation, Dosage zero-to-peak amplitude.

Table 2 Studies using spatial orienting tasks, with and without spatial cues. All studies were sham controlled A anodal, C cathodal, ref location of tDCS electrode that was not of interest, IPS intraparietal sulcus, Online task performed during stimulation, Offline task performed after stimulation, Dosage zero-to-peak amplitude. Table 3 Studies using spatial bias tasks, in healthy controls or neglect patients. Table 4 Studies using sustained attention tasks.

Effect only present when compared to opposite montage, not sham Axelrod et al. No effects on reaction time Plewnia et al. No effects on reaction time Hsu et al. Studies are presented in order of appearance in the body text; studies not cited in the body text appear in the bottom section of the table in alphabetical order A anodal, C cathodal, ref location of tDCS electrode that was not of interest, Online task performed during stimulation, Offline task performed after stimulation. Table 5 Studies using other attention paradigms not discussed in the body text.

All studies were sham controlled, except London and Slagter A anodal, C cathodal, ref location of tDCS electrode that was not of interest, Online task performed during stimulation, Offline task performed after stimulation. Stimulus-Driven Orienting The effects of tES on stimulus-driven orienting can be studied by stimulating the parietal cortex ipsi- or contralateral to a target stimulus. Endogenous and Exogenous Orienting Spatial cueing tasks, such as the classical Posner paradigm, can chart how spatial attention prior to stimulus presentation facilitates performance Chica et al.

Pseudoneglect Loftus and Nicholls demonstrated that pseudoneglect can be reversed with anodal tDCS over the left parietal cortex. Hemispatial Neglect Hemispatial neglect occurs most frequently following lesions of the right ventral parietal cortex Vallar and Perani Acknowledgements We thank Marlies Vissers and three anonymous reviewers for providing useful feedback on the manuscript.

Antal, A.

  • Special order items;
  • Transcranial Electrical Stimulation as a Tool to Enhance Attention.
  • Environmental Risk Assessment: Quantitative Measures, Anthropogenic Influences, Human Impact?
  • Transcranial Electrical Stimulation as a Tool to Enhance Attention | SpringerLink!
  • Transcranial alternating current and random noise stimulation: possible mechanisms. Neural Plasticity, , 1— CrossRef Google Scholar. Axelrod, V. Increasing propensity to mind-wander with transcranial direct current stimulation. Ball, K. Site-dependent effects of tDCS uncover dissociations in the communication network underlying the processing of visual search.

    Brain stimulation, 6 , — Bang, D. Effect of combination of transcranial direct current stimulation and feedback training on visuospatial neglect in patients with subacute stroke: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    go to site Journal of Physical Therapy Science, 27 9 , — Bardi, L. Cortex, 49 3 , — Batsikadze, G. Partially non-linear stimulation intensity-dependent effects of direct current stimulation on motor cortex excitability in humans. The Journal of Physiology, Pt 7 , — Benwell, C. Non-linear effects of transcranial direct current stimulation as a function of individual baseline performance: evidence from biparietal tDCS influence on lateralized attention bias. Cortex, 69 , — Bergmann, T.

    Combining non-invasive transcranial brain stimulation with neuroimaging and electrophysiology: current approaches and future perspectives. NeuroImage, , 4— Bestmann, S. Understanding the behavioural consequences of noninvasive brain stimulation. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 19 1 , 13— Bikson, M. Computational models of transcranial direct current stimulation. Clinical EEG and Neuroscience, 43 3 , — Bindman, L. The action of brief polarizing currents on the cerebral cortex of the rat 1 during current flow and 2 in the production of long-lasting after effects.

    Saluran unggulan

    Journal of Physiology, , — Blumberg, E. Enhancing multiple object tracking performance with noninvasive brain stimulation: a causal role for the anterior intraparietal sulcus. Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience, 9 February , 3. Bolognini, N. Brain polarization of parietal cortex augments training-induced improvement of visual exploratory and attentional skills. Brain Research, , 76— Enhancing multisensory spatial orienting by brain polarization of the parietal cortex. The European Journal of Neuroscience, 31 10 , — Bowers, D.

    Pseudoneglect: effects of hemispace on a tactile line bisection task. Neuropsychologia, 18 , — Brem, A. Is neuroenhancement by noninvasive brain stimulation a net zero-sum proposition? NeuroImage, 85 , — Treatment of visuospatial neglect with biparietal tDCS and cognitive training: a single-case study. Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience, 8 September , Brignani, D.

    Is transcranial alternating current stimulation effective in modulating brain oscillations? Buschman, T. Top-down versus bottom-up control of attention in the prefrontal and posterior parietal cortices. Science, , — Neuronal oscillations in cortical networks. Callan, D. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 10 March , Chica, A. The spatial orienting paradigm: how to design and interpret spatial attention experiments.

    Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 40 , 35— Clark, V. Transcranial direct current stimulation tDCS produces localized and specific alterations in neurochemistry: a 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy study. Neuroscience Letters, 1 , 67— NeuroImage, 59 1 , — Coffman, B. Enhancement of object detection with transcranial direct current stimulation is associated with increased attention. BMC Neuroscience, 13 , Battery powered thought: enhancement of attention, learning, and memory in healthy adults using transcranial direct current stimulation.

    NeuroImage, 85 Pt 3 , — Cohen Kadosh, R. The stimulated brain: cognitive enhancement using non-invasive brain stimulation.

    Review ARTICLE

    London: Academic. Google Scholar. Corbetta, M. Control of goal-directed and stimulus-driven attention in the brain. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 3 3 , — Neural basis and recovery of spatial attention deficits in spatial neglect. Nature Neuroscience, 8 11 , — Cosman, J. Transient reduction of visual distraction following electrical stimulation of the prefrontal cortex. Cognition, , 73— Predicting the behavioral impact of transcranial direct current stimulation: issues and limitations.

    1. Physics (Instant Egghead Guides)!
    2. Large Deviations and Idempotent Probability;
    3. The Neuroethics of transcranial electrical stimulation — Macquarie University;
    4. Systematic Review ARTICLE?

    Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 7 October , Effects of anodal TDCS stimulation of left parietal cortex on visual spatial attention tasks in men and women across menstrual cycle. Neuroscience Letters, , 21— Dyke, K. Brain Stimulation , 1—7. Ellison, A. Functional interaction between right parietal and bilateral frontal cortices during visual search tasks revealed using functional magnetic imaging and transcranial direct current stimulation.

    Falcone, B. Transcranial direct current stimulation augments perceptual sensitivity and hour retention in a complex threat detection task. Fan, J. Testing the efficiency and independence of attentional networks. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 14 3 , — Filmer, H. Dissociable effects of anodal and cathodal tDCS reveal distinct functional roles for right parietal cortex in the detection of single and competing stimuli.

    Neuropsychologia, 74 , — Giglia, G. Neglect-like effects induced by tDCS modulation of posterior parietal cortices in healthy subjects. Brain Stimulation, 4 4 , — Green, C. Learning, attentional control, and action video games. Current Biology, 22 6 , R—R Heilman, K. Neglect and related disorders. Valenstein Eds. New York: Oxford University Press. Herrmann, C. Transcranial alternating current stimulation: a review of the underlying mechanisms and modulation of cognitive processes. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 7 June , Hone-Blanchet, A. Online effects of transcranial direct current stimulation in real time on human prefrontal and striatal metabolites.

    Biological Psychiatry, 80 6 , — Hopfinger, J. Differential effects of Hz and Hz transcranial alternating current stimulation tACS on endogenous versus exogenous attention. Cognitive Neuroscience, June , 1— Horvath, J. Quantitative review finds no evidence of cognitive effects in healthy populations from single-session transcranial direct current stimulation tDCS. Brain Stimulation, 8 3 , — Effects of transcranial direct current stimulation on motor evoked potential amplitude are neither reliable nor significant within individuals over 9 separate testing sessions.

    Brain Stimulation, 8 2 , Hsu, W. Delayed enhancement of multitasking performance: effects of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation on the prefrontal cortex. Iuculano, T. The mental cost of cognitive enhancement. Journal of Neuroscience, 33 10 , — Jacobson, L. Experimental Brain Research, 1 , 1— Jewell, G. Pseudoneglect: a review and meta-analysis of performance factors in line bisection tasks.

    Neuropsychologia, 38 1 , 93— Jones, K. In addition, it addresses a very timely and relevant issue which has long been known to require more treatment. Search Site only in current section. Advanced Search…. About Us. Ringvorlesung "Wege zur Erforschung des Gehirns". Press Coverage. Bernstein Center Freiburg. University of Freiburg. Document Actions Print this. However, although Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation TMS and particularly Transcranial Electrical Stimulation tES have the potential to become more widely applicable techniques, as they come with none of the risks associated with deep brain stimulation.