Polysaccharides: Bioactivity and Biotechnology
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Author January, Grant Garren. Metadata Show full item record. Abstract Fucoidan is a marine-derived sulphated polysaccharide with bioactive properties ideal for the food, chemical and pharmaceutical industries. The polysaccharide consists largely of L-fucose, has a highly heterogeneous structure and is of diverse origin. Fucoidan was extracted from Ecklonia maxima, Laminaria pallida and Splachnidium rugosum and the effect of different extraction methods on fucoidan heterogeneity was assessed. Extraction methods employed hot water, hydrochloric acid or calcium chloride salt.
Fucoidan yield and purity were determined by various colorimetric assays. Highest fucoidan yield was obtained with the hot water extraction method as seen by highest L-fucose content.
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Acid extraction yielded highest levels of uronic acid contamination and liberated sulphate from the fucoidan polysaccharide. The fucose-to-sulphate ratio for Ecklonia maxima was approximately , whilst the ratios for Splachnidium rugosum and Laminaria pallida were approximately and , respectively. The acid and salt extraction methods removed all traces of protein contaminants, while the hot water method retained very low levels of protein.
The extraction method used to isolate fucoidan was a determining factor in yield and purity. Chemical compositional analyses of hot water extracts were assessed by gas chromatography mass spectroscopy. Splachnidium rugosum and Laminaria pallida extracts consisted largely of L-fucose, while Ecklonia maxima fucoidan was characterized with high glucose abundance. Crude hot water and acid extracts from Splachnidium rugosum tissue were fractionated and purified by anionic ion exchange chromatography as bioactivity has been correlated to lower molecular weight forms.
Marine species are enriched with organic compounds viz. Biological Activities and Application of Marine Polysaccharides. Nature is an ancient pharmacy known to human. Life originated over four billion years ago in oceans, besides sea aid ecosystems, and provides source of food for organism and man. Carbohydrates are abundant, essential natural polysaccharides consisting of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen atoms H:O as and empirical formula C m [H 2 O] n where m is different from n and usually varies from to , having vast health benefits.
Marine biotechnology focuses the following goals: Discovery of bioactive molecules from marine organisms to reveal their functions and actions. Study the environmental parameters, nutritional requirements and genetic factors that control the production of primary and secondary metabolites from marine species. About 20, metabolites yielded from marine bacteria, sponge, coral and starfish cater significant untapped promises and act as chemical library database in pharmaceutics due to their intrinsic features.
Advance molecular biology has innovated methods for marine organisms to isolate assorted polyunsaturated fattyacids, polysaccharides, minerals, vitamins, enzymes, and peptides. Alginate and chitin polysaccharides have an extensive history of use in medicine, particularly, in pharmacy and basic sciences. Branch structures are different polysaccharide from protein and nucleic acid polymers.
Agar and agarose have less sulfate content, but high uronic contents and corresponding beads are developed that exhibited better optical clarity with improved gel strength exploited in sustainable release of phenobarbital sodium hypnotic drug. Agars are effective for spatial infections such as poliovirus, herpes simplex, dengue viruses and also meats gelling, laxatives and flexible molds in dentistry and criminology.
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The cosmetic industry and advance biotechnology are mainlyfocused on marine polysaccharides as compared to synthetic chemicals due to perceived inherent prominent effects such as reduce free radical provoked aging, inflammation, and skin degradation. Chitin shows resemblance with living tissues that aid to maintain cutaneous homeostasis, neutralize radical activity, and induces transcutaneous penetration of active drugs. Chitosan hydrogel's excellent water absorption property is exploited in making of some moisturizers; it also provides wound healing and exhibits antioxidant and antimicrobial activities against various bacteria, yeast and fungi and metalloproteinase.
Chitin exhibited distinct characteristic against fungus pathogens resistance, autolytic, nutritional, and morphogenetic functions in plant, pathogenesis in virus and elicits lysozyme inductions, immunizations and parasitism in bacteria. Data from different techniques showed discrepancies in degree of acylation and solubility disparity as no technique points out appropriate clarification for solubility [ 11 ]. Industrially, acid treatment use to dissolve CaCO 3 and Ca 3 PO 4 2 followed by alkaline extraction to solubilize proteins in chitin processing from crustaceans.
Surface properties of polysaccharides
Deacetylation removes enough acetyls to yield chitosan with high degree chemical reactive amines that can affect physicochemical properties such as biodegradability and immunological activity [ 12 ]. Chitosan is soluble in dilute acetic acid which has free —NH 2 for modifications so supersede chitin. Such acylated chitosan are beneficial such as easy solubility, benign plasma proteins sorption, and drugs selectively with reduce free blood concentration [ 14 ].
Galactosyled chitosan derivatives act as the synthetic extracellular matrix for hepatocyte attachment [ 14 , 15 ]. Graft copolymerization of chitosan: Chitosans are tailored to yield composites so as to improve certain aspects such as inclusion complexation [ 14 ], mucoadhesivity retaintion [ 13 , 14 ], adsorption [ 15 ], bacteriostaticity, biocompatibility, and biodegradability [ 12 , 15 ]. Chitosan is the only cationic polysaccharide that is nontoxic and biodegradable in body, thus exploited by tissue engineering for wound dressings, drug delivery, and bone graft alternative in orthopaedic beside scaffolds for cartilage, intervertebral disc, and bone tissue.
The critical examination of literature results in correlation between properties of nanoconstructs with component structures as advantageous due to modulating. Nevertheless, chitosan skeletal optimization yields biomaterials with therapeutic and biological profiles useful in drug delivery formulations and as functional excipients.
Polysaccharides: Bioactivity and Biotechnology
Caffeic acid and doxorubicin individually doped chitosan composites revealed strong fluorescence intensity used to vehicle anticancer drugs [ 17 ]. Nanochitosan carrying saquinavir drug imparted excellent antiHIV potential and high cell target efficiency to yield efficient HIV proliferation control [ 18 , 19 ]. Pharmaceutically, chitosan delivered tablets, microspheres, micelles, vaccines, nucleic acids, hydrogels, nanoparticles, and conjugates via implantable, injectable oral, nasal, and ocular routes.
Chitosan facilitates transmucosal absorption vital in delivery of peptides and in protein vaccination [ 9 , 12 , 20 ] besides an excipient in oral tablet formulation. Hydrophilic chitosan imparts low surface activity that gets improved by glucosidic modifications, hydrophobic substitutions, and by providing hydrophilic shield at hydrophobic centers [ 12 ] to protect hydrophobic drugs with improved solubility and bioavailability [ 20 ].
But ionotropic gelation is preferred due to mildness and less time involved in spontaneous aggregation.
Medical textiles or healthcare textiles is arapidly expanding technical textile market to prepare materials for medical and healthcare products like simple gauzes, bandages, tissue culturing scaffolds, and prostheses for permanent body implants [ 23 ]. Chitosan acts as a natural adsorbent due to free amino and hydroxyl groups responsible for adsorptive interactions with water pollutants like dyes [ 29 ], metals [ 30 — 33 ], and organic compounds, etc. Functionality of chitosan is facile for modifications, viz. Chitosan alteration is best for adsorption of dyes, phenols, polycyclic aromatic, pesticide, herbicides, and metal ions.
Metal cations are chelated specifically at protonated amines in acidic conditions whereas anions by electrostatic interactions. Chitoneous adsorptive interaction includes partition, diffusion, chelation, trapping, scavenging, cation exchange, hydrogen bonding, Van der waals force, dipole—dipole, and electrostatic interactions [ 29 — 33 ].